Related Publications

Since the chalcogenide glasses transmit to longer wavelengths in the IR than silica and fluoride glasses, there are numerous potential applications in the civil, medical and military areas.

The list below is a continuously updated list of papers mentioning IRflex’s products and/or written by us. The references are sorted by year of publishing and journal/book name. These distinguished research works, which have become permanent record of many important developments in the field, helping optical scientists and optical engineers stay abreast in their research field.  If you wish, your publication shall be included here, please send us an email to containing the appropriate citation. Gain additional publicity with us!

Note: The following list contains articles mentioning explicitly IRflex or at least one of our product’s name. Most of the reference can be found easily by full-text searches. However, some papers cite us only indirectly, sometimes not at all. Such publications are included only if the use of a IRflex’s product is known, or based on communication with the author(s). There are certainly many more articles reporting results obtained using IRflex’s fibers and devices. Unfortunately, such papers are often unknown by us. Please help us complete the list.

Thank you very much in advance.

Power stable 1.5–10.5 µm cascaded mid-infrared supercontinuum laser without thulium amplifier By Getinet Woyessa, Kyei Kwarkye, Manoj K. Dasa, Christian R. Petersen, Raghuraman Sidharthan, Shaoxiang Chen, Seongwoo Yoo, and Ole Bang, published at OSA Publishing > Optics Letters > Volume 46 > Issue 5 > Page 1129  (2021).  IRflex’s IRF-S-9 and IRF-SeG-12 chalcogenide glass fibers were successfully used in the project.

Thermo-mechanical dynamics of nanoimprinting anti-reflective structures onto small-core mid-IR chalcogenide fibers [Invited]  by Christian R. Petersen, Mikkel B. Lotz, Christos Markos, Getinet Woyessa, David Furniss, Angela B. Seddon, Rafael J. Taboryski, and O. Bang, published at OSA Publishing > Chinese Optics Letters > Volume 19 > Issue 3 > Page 030603 (2021).  IRflex’s IRF-Se-100 and IRF-Se-12 chalcogenide glass fibers were used successfully in the experiment.

Novel hollow-core chalcogenide fiber with anti-resonant arches for high-power infrared laser transmission by Francois Chenard, Oseas Alvarez, Andrew Buff of IRflex Corporation, USA.  The paper presented at Photonics West 2020, published in SPIE Digital Library on February 21, 2020.  The article presented the latest simulation and experimental result of IRflex’s patent pending hollow-core fiber, which is designed and made of our chalcogenide glass As2S3 for high power CO2 laser transmission at 10.6 micron.

Nonlinear characterization of silica and chalcogenide microresonators  by Jiangang Zhu, Mo Zohrabi, Kyuyoung Bae, Thomas M. Horning, Michael B. Grayson, Wounjiang Park, and Juliet T. Gopinath of University of Colorado USA, Published in  OSA Publishing /Optica/Volume 6/Issue 6/Page 716, May 23, 2019.  In their experiment, IRflex’s IRF-S-6 chalcogenide AsS fiber has been used successfully.

A single-ended, mid-IR sensor for time-resolved temperature and species measurements in a hydrogen/ethylene-fueled rotating detonation engine by S. J. Cassady, W. Y. Peng, C. L. Strand, J.B. Jeffries and R.K. Hanson of Stanford University, D. F. Dausen, C. M. Brophy of  Naval Postgraduate School Published in AIAA SciTech Forum, 2019, pp. 1–8.  IRflex’s 7-to-1 chalcogenide mid-IR fused fiber combiner was employed with their single-ended laser to measure directly temperature, H2O and CO mole fraction with 44 kHz resolution in a hydrogen/ethylene-fueled rotating detonation engine.

Single-Ended Sensor for Thermometry and Speciation in Shock Tubes Using Native Surfaces by W. Y. Peng, Y. Wang, S. J. Cassady, C. L. Strand and R. K. Hanson of Stanford University.  Appear in: IEEE Sens. J., pp. 1–8, 2019.  IRflex’s 7-to-1 chalcogenide mid-IR fused fiber combiner was used to transmit four monochromatic laser beams probing strong species-specific mid-infrared absorption transitions through a single optical port and measured the back-scattered laser radiation from the native surface across the 13.97 cm-diameter shock tube.

The Sommerfeld ground-wave limit for a molecule adsorbed at a surface by Li Chen, Jascha A. Lau, Dirk Schewarzer, Jorg Meyer, Varun B. Verma, Alec M. Wodtke, published in December 2018, by Science.  IRflex’s IRF-S series fibers were successfully used in the experiment.

Mid-infrared Chalcogenide fiber devices for medical applications by Francois Chenard, Oseas Alvarez, Andrew Buff, presented at SPIE BiOS 2018, published on February 13, 2018 , Proceeding Volume 10488.  High-purity chalcogenide glasses and fiber draw processes enable the production of state-of-the-art mid-infrared fibers for 1.5 to 10 micron transmission. Multimode and single-mode mid-infrared fibers are produced with low-loss (<0.2 dB/m), high tensile strength (>25 kpsi), and high power laser handling capability (>11.8 MW/cm2).

Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation from 1.6 to >11  μm using concatenated step-index fluoride and chalcogenide fibers by Ramon A. Martinez, Genevieve Plant, Kaiwen Guo, Brian Janiszewski, Michael J. Freeman, Robert L. Maynard, Mohammed N. Islam, Fred L. Terry, Oseas Alvarez, Francois Chenard, Robert Bedford, Ricky Gibson, and Agustin I. Ifarraguerri.  Published on Optics Letter, Vol 43, No. 2 , January 15, 2018.   IRflex’s IRF-S-9 and IRF-SeG-12 fiber were successfully used for this experiment.

Generation of 70-fs Pulses at 2.86 µm from a Mid-infrared Fiber Laser by R.I.Woodward, D.D.Hudson, A. Fuerbach, and S.D. Jackson.  Published on November 22, 2017, Vol. 42, No.23/December 1 2017/Optics Letter 4893.  IRflex’s IRF-S-5 fiber was successfully used for nonlinear compression to produce few-cycle mid IR pulses

Mid-infrared Laser-Induced Fluorescence with Nanosecond Time Resolution Using a Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector:  New Technology for Molecule Science by Li Chen, Dirk Schwarzer, Varun B Verma, Martin J. Stevens, Francesco Marsili, Richard P. Mirin, Sae Woo Nam, and Alex M. Wodtke, published at ACCOUNTS of chemical research on June 2017.  IRflex’s IRF-S-100 fiber was successfully used in the experiment.

Chalcogenide Molded Freeform Optics for Mid-infrared Lasers by Francois Chenard, Oseas Alvarez, IRflex Corporation (United States); Allen Y. Yi, The Ohio State Univ. (United States).  Abstract of Paper 10181-27 at SPIE Defense+Commercial Sensing 2017 Conference

Mid-infrared Imaging Fiber Bundle by Francois Chenard, Oseas Alvarez, IRflex Corporation (United States); Dan Gibson, Brandon L. Shaw, Jas Sanghera, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (United States).  Abstract of Paper 10181-29 at SPIE Defense+Commercial Sensing 2017 Conference

Optical fiber pumping 2.0 – 5.5 spectrum flat type mid-infrared supercontinuum light source by Ke Yin, Wu Zhang,  Zhen Cai, Guangshen Liu and Jin Hou, published by Chinese Journal of Lasers, Vol. 43, No. 12 December 2016.  IRflex’s IRF-S series singlemode chalcogenide glass fiber was successfully used in the experiment.

Broadband mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in 1-meter-long As2S3-based fiber with ultra-large core diameter by Peiqing Zhang, Peilong Yang, Xunsi Wang, Rongping Wang, Shixun Dai, and Qiuhua Nie. Published 30 Nov 2016, OSA Publishing, Optics Express, Volume 24, Issue 25, Page 28400.  IRflex’s IRF-S-200 chalcogenide glass fiber was used in the experiment.

Mid-infrared Ultra-high-Q Resonators based on fluoride crystalline materials by C. Lecaplain, C. Javerzac-Galy, M.L. Gorodetsky & T.J. Kippenberg, published November 21, 2016 by Nature Communications. IRflex’s IRF-S-9  chalcogenide (ChG) tapered fiber has been successfully used in the experiment.

Mode Coupling in Chalcogenide Negative Curvature Fibers  by Chengli Wei, Robinson A. Kuis, Francois Chenard, Curtis R. Menyuk, and Jonathan Hu, presented as conference papers at CLEO2016, published by OSA Publishing (JTu5A.93), the chalcogenide class fiber used are IRflex’s chalcogenide glass fibers.

Hybridized Fabrication of Robust Low-Loss Multimaterial Chalcogenide Fiber for Infrared Applications by Soroush Shabahang, Felix Tan, Joshua Perlstein, Guangming Tao, Mohammed Algarni, Yuanli Bai, Oseas Alvarez, Gene Tsvid, Chandra Kumar N. Patel, Francois Chenard, Kenneth L. Schepler, and Ayman Abouraddy.  Presented as conference paper at CLEO2016, published by OSA Publishing (JF1K.3), The chalcogenide glass based cane was manufactured by IRflex Corporation.

Low-loss, robust fusion splicing of silica to chalcogenide fiber for integrated mid-infrared laser technology development by Rajesh Thapa, Rafael R. Gattass, Vinh Nguyen, Geoff Chin, Dan Gibson, Woohong Kim, L. Brandon Shaw, and Jasbinder S. Sanghera. OSA Publishing, Vol. 40, No. 21/November 1 2015/Optics Letters.  IRflex’s IRF-S-6.5 mid-IR fiber was used in the experiment.

Infrared fibers by Guangming Tao, Heike Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Alexander M. Stolyarov, Sylvain Danto, John V. Badding, Yoel Fink, John Ballato and Ayman F. Abouraddy.  OSA Publishing/Advances in Optics and Photonics Vol.7, Issue 2, pp. 379-458 (2015), doi:10.1364/AOP.7.000379

High-power mid-infrared high repetition-rate supercontinuum source based on a chalcogenide step-index fiberby Stefan Kedenburg, Tobias Steinle, Florian Morz, Andy Steinmann, and Harald Giessen, Published 1 June 2015, Optics Letter (Doc. ID236877).  IRflex’s IRF-S-7 and IRF-S-9 fibers have been successfully used in the experiment.

Quantum cascade laser Kerr frequency comb generation by Caroline Lecaplain, Clément Javerzac-Galy, Erwan Lucas, John D. Jost, and tobias kippenberg, CLEO2015, ISBN:978-1-55752-968-8.  IRflex’s IRF-S-10 fiber has been successfully used in the research.

MIR Chalcogenide Fiber and Devices by Francois Chenard, Oseas Alvarez, and Hassan Moawad, Proc SPIE 9317 at Photonics West 2015

Chalcogenide negative curvature hollow-core photonic crystal fibers with low loss and low power ratio in the glass by Chengli Wei, Robinson Kuis, Francois Chenard, and Jonathan Hu, CLEO_SI.2014.SM1N.5

Mid-Infrared Single-Photon Detection with Tungsten Silicide Superconducting Nanowires by F.Marsili, V.B Verma, M.J.Stevens, J.A.Stern, M.D.Shaw, A.J. Miller, D. Schwarzer, A. Wodtke, R.P.Mirin, and S.W.Nam CLEO_SI.2013.CTu1H.1, IRflex’s IRF-S-100 fiber was used in the experiment.

Progress on Mid IR Chalcogenide Fiber and Devices by F Chenard, OSA SOF SW3F, 2012

U.S. Manufacture of IR Fibers by F Chenard, OSA SOF SOMC2 June 2011

Chalcogenide fiber for mid-infrared transmission and generation of laser source by F Chenard, R. Kuis, SPIE Vol. 7693-08, 2010


MIR Chalcogenide Fiber and Devices, Published at SPIE PW2015 pdf icon for download